Analysis of the Energy Harvesters (EH) from theoretical, numerical and experimental standpoint. We can advise on a selection of the most optimal EH technique for user-defined case. Numerical modelling of the performance evaluation upon user-defined topologies is offered. Finally, we can provide characterisation to our EH laboratory.


CEZAMAT team is focused on investigation of novel waste Energy harvesting methods involving different input energy sources i.a. light, RF & THz waves, vibrations, heat. Despite that, Energy harvested from wastes is very minute it is sufficient to totally cover modern IoT node energetically needs (~100μJ/cycle).

A common property of waste Energy harvesters is small output power level. In order to increase this Energy a pulse-mode operational mode of thermoelectric generator was invented and characterized. This method allowed for x2,5 power boost comparing with conventional mode of operation.

Modern thermoelectricity uses mainly costly, toxic, harmful, complex and industrially incompatible materials – resulting in unpopularity on the market. The solution can be achieved using Silicon (Si) as thermoelectrics, but it has too high thermal conductivity (κ). Reduction of κ can be achieved by material engineering e.g. thin-film membranes and/or phononic crystals. One of activities of our group is construction of thin-film Si-based thermoelectric generator and micrometer thermal characterization platform for 2D materials.

Additionally an exploration of innovative harvesting techniques from omnipresent Energy sources are in scope of our interests. Such harvesters could generate Energy regardless their installation spot.

We offer expertise in design of energy harvesters topologies and layouts along with numerical modelling, theoretical calculations of harvester performance and applicability valuation of chosen energy harvesting solutions. We have capability to conduct case study of energy harvesting suitability according to costumer-defined applications, prepare market forecasts and analysis. Based on our planar technology pilot line we offer energy harvesters fabrication and integration consulting. Finally, we can provide performance characterisation of EH devices provided by the user.

Technical specifications:

 – sample must have an electric access ports wire-bonded

– min. expected output voltage above 100μV

– max. operating frequency below 500MHz

– max. operating temperature below 250°C

Case study:

A. An User defined a waste energy source character and density requesting an expertise what fraction of the input energy can be recovered using energy harvester. After studying the case two harvesting methods were selected emphasizing their typical output energy densities. Afterwards, the User defined maximal available footprint of the harvester allowing calculation of recovered energy level for both selected harvesting techniques.

B. An User was struggling to boost the energy from the constant heat losses. The user requirement was to use only off-the-shelf devices. After studying this case we have proposed a power booster for the thermoelectric generator allowing for x3 power boost over conventional operation.


[1] M. Haras, M. Wlazło, W. Andrysiewicz, and T. Skotnicki, “ZnO nanorods as a piezoelectric energy harvester from light induced flexions”, in Smart Materials for Opto-Electronic Applications, Prague, Czech Republic, 2023, vol. 12584, pp. 59–69, doi: 10.1117/12.2665540.

[2] M. Wlazło, M. Haras, G. Kołodziej, O. Szawcow, J. Ostapko, W. Andrysiewicz, D. S. Kharytonau, and T. Skotnicki, “Piezoelectric Response and Substrate Effect of ZnO Nanowires for Mechanical Energy Harvesting in Internet-of-Things Applications”, Materials, vol. 15, no. 19, p. 6767, Jan. 2022, doi: 10.3390/ma15196767.

[4] M. Haras, M. Markiewicz, S. Monfray, and T. Skotnicki, “Pulse mode of operation – A new booster of TEG, improving power up to X2.7 – to better fit IoT requirements”, Nano Energy, vol. 68, p. 104204, Feb. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2019.104204.

Access Provider / Facilities